The first certain evidence of human presence on the island dates back to the Neolithic: this is a sampling of obsidian tools of Pantelleria (found between Malta and Tunisia, Sicily, Italy and southern France) and evidence of lithic industries, workshops and found among the old and jumping Arena, which, however, in the absence of further evidence, could not even insert an indigenous contextbut the import of raw materials (chalcedony and Obsidian) from neighbouring shores North African, Sicilian or Maltese.
In contrast, the earliest traces of a certain stable settlement pantesco, worthy of that name, are those above leave Cala dell'alga (between Cimillìa and Mursìa) from a civilization dating back to the late bronze age, between the 18TH and the beginning of the 14TH CENTURY BC: it is a great settlement protected by a colossal walls and by a precipice, and divided between the top (near the "Muro Alto") andApparently, perched on the promontory; fuori le mura spanned the city of the dead, which is signified by a hundred burial mounds shaped lavic stone, known as Sesi, smooth inside which the dead were buried within the cells of circular burial chambers with their sepulchral outfit; a rough stone wall then sealed the Tomb, the Chemokine receptor burrow entrance to the narrow opening.
There followed a period in which the island seems to have fallen into disrepair, until the arrival of the Punics (to mid-8th century BC), who settled there a rich community, probably accustomed to trade but also devoted to agriculture, undertaken thanks to the construction of underground cisterns for collecting rainwater, often survived to our days. Their greatest legacy was the Acropolis of San Marco and Santa Teresa and a rich collection of coins (Mint), witnesses of the prosperity of the island (then called Yrnm) and of its political autonomy (albeit in the shadow of Carthage), where Rome will end after the first occupation of 255 BCE and a subsequent reconquest punica, in 217 BC, at the hands of the Consul Tiberius Sempronius longus.
Since then, however, Cossyra (that is the Roman name for the island) had its heyday, supported by recent discoveries from three precious marble heads depicting Julius Caesar, Antonia minor and Titus, to adorn (along with other imperial depictions) a rich Pantheon dwelled on top of Santa Teresa, inside the sacred area. Follow the progressive abandonment of the site and the surrounding area (in favor of the current urban center), and the inevitable decline under the pressure of the barbaric invasions.
In 439, after the capture of Carthage and the definitive expulsion of Romans from the Maghreb, to become land of conquest for the Vandals, whom you will install a small but active community, of which we find evidence in Scauri-Scalo, in immediate vicinity of the coast: the remains of an urban conurbation, with factories, places of worship and burial, and the wreck of a commercial ship sunk a few feet from the shorewith its cargo of pottery and its navigation Kit.
Around the mid-4th century, Cossyra passes under Byzantine rule, soon questioned by steamroller Arabic. The plan of the Castle (repeatedly razed and rebuilt in Norman epoch), the ruins of the monastery of Saint Basil in Zubèbi, and some rock-cut sarcophagi in various locations on the island, are a testimony; likely that the current name of the island was their legacy (from Greek Patelareas-Patalareas ", meaning" pot, frying pan, "probably for the Pantellerian Ware, earthenware produced in in those days on the island).
In 700 the Arabs bring Pantelleria to iron and fire, massacring the Christian population, almost to zero, and establishing a climate of instability which continued until the final conquest of 835. Since that time, the dominant element will be Muslim, coming mainly from North-Africa and Berber, which will strain (after collection of tribute on "still life") a peaceful coexistence with what was left of the pre-existing Jewish and Christian communities, Greek Orthodox, definitively ceased in 1492, with the Christianization sets by the Spanish; so much so that even the Swabian era, Christians and Muslims enjoyed separate jurisdictions, administered by prefects and one other strain, although appointed by the King of Sicily. Newcomers provide stability and prosperity, however, giving up to transform agriculture in the main economic activity of the island, also thanks to the introduction of new crops such as cotton.
In the 11th century. 1087 the Mediterranean maritime republics form Alliance to expel Muslims from Christian lands in 1123 the Normans arrive in Pantelleria, building the Castle (erroneously called "Barbacane") and ending the Muslim hegemony; Swabian and Angevin followed and, after the expulsion of the latter as a result of the Sicilian Vespers; the Aragonese, then been disbursed in the Kingdom of Spain with the Castilians in 1412 (marriage to Isabelle and Ferdinand of Aragon and the resolution of the Council of the Crown of Aragon).
Will the Aragonese, in 1361, to introduce feudalism, with a first parenthesis genovese (in favor of Emanuele Doria and San Lazzaro Barnabo Giovanni Squarciafico), the subsequent struggle to Francesco de Belvis (Falconer of King Alfonso the magnanimous), and the definitive passage to Requiesenz, after the Act of buying and selling.
From 1550 to 1556, was a chain of French incursions, Turkish and Barbary (like the Corsair Dragut), the last of which, by the Turks, reduced to rubble the whole town, killing and deporting nearly all of the population: whole House Pantelleria disappeared forever, swallowed by the abyss of an unprecedented tragedy.
As A result of such devastation and atrocities, in 1574, the Spanish sent to the defense of the island Captain d'arme Andrea Rosales (with a large masses of reinforcements), which sought the restoration of the Castle (expanded with the construction of a bastion for the artillery) and the walls, and the same community donkey which assumed the Government. He began the pax, with the cessation of aggression in style (also thanks to the replacement of the militia acted with the Director) and a benevolent and fair Government.
After a first sortie of Savoy (who in 1713 the Kingdom of Sicily, thanks to the results of the war of the Spanish succession) and an equally brief period (from 1720 to 1734), with the advent of Borboni, you restart the economy of the island, starting from agriculture, thanks also to the dissolution of feudal rights; Pantelleria is also one of the Kingdom's military.
In 1860, was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, experiencing it too, like the rest of the South, a period of banditry (born from a trivial dispute, hereditary), which ended the Colonel Eberhard, on 19 September 1863, with 500 soldiers and 400 militiamen attractions.
The rest of the story of the island belongs to the recent history of Italy. In the last century should be noted the strategic importance and role that the island had during World War II, near the conflict, gave a nice but short season, full of important achievements, road networks, the port (left unfinished by the outbreak of the conflict), the airport with Hangars, for which a whole Hill was levelled and were sacrificed hundreds of hectares of vineyards.
This brief period of infrastructural growth ended the 8 May 1943, when the anglo-Americans attacked the island from the sky and the sea, subject to the first bombing raids in history: between 6 and 11 June, frontline ben 5,000 tons of bombs (for a total of 20,000), in particular the airport; While the city center, only partially affected by war events, was almost totally ripped down and razed to the ground in order to shoot propaganda at the time of the surrender, after 35 days of siege virtually unchallenged.
Postwar reconstruction brings us in the history of recent days; since' 70 Pantelleria saw his agricultural activities have always been prevalent, a growing tourist attraction; Thanks to the conversion and use for civil use of military airport, over the last two decades the island look to improving tourist reception, with a particular focus on the protection of the natural heritage, cultural and historical. In the year 2009 started the expansion and modernization of the Airport to make in a few years the island ready and receptive for international flights. We hope that this can help the future and growth of an island with extraordinary potential.